Exploring The Washback Concept In Language Testing

Tiara Dyah Andriani


This paper is a literature review which aims to dig more exploration about washback concept in language testing. The definition of washback in language teaching is also explored. Some definitions of washback are provided from some scholars and the construct of it are also provided. This paper also discusses about the mechanisms of washback which is related with the hypotheses of washback explained by the scholars. Furthermore, how to create positive washback and the factors supporting positive washback are also discussed in this paper. To date, the researcher provides a review about measuring washback in language teaching by digging the explanation from the researcher and constructing her argument about it. In the last part of this paper, she provides sample studies about washback in language teaching from some previous research done by the experts in this field.

Keywords: washback, language teaching, concept

Teks Lengkap:



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Buck, G. (1988). Testing listening comprehension in Japanese university entrance examinations. JALT Journal , 10, 15-42.

Cheng, L. 1999. ‘Changing assessment: Washback on teacher perceptions and actions’. Teaching and Teacher Education 15: 253–271

Cheng, L. & Curtis, A. (2004). Washback or Backwash: A review of the impact of testing on teaching and learning. In Cheng, L., Y., Watanabe, & A. Curtis.

Doye, P. (1991).Authenticity in foreign language testing. In Anivan, S., editor, Current developments in language testing. Anthology Series 25, Singapore: Regional Language Centre, 103-10.

Gates, S. (1995). Exploiting Washback from standardized tests. In Brown , J.D & S.O. Yamashita (Eds.).

Hughes, A. (1989). Testing for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hughes, A. (1993). Backwash and TOEFL 2000. Unpublished manuscript: University of Reading.

Messick, S. (1996). Validity and washback in language testing. Language Testing, 13(3), 241-256.

Morrow, K. (1991). Evaluating communicative tests. In Anivan, S., editor, Current developments in language testing. Anthology Series 25, Singapore: Regional Language Centre, 111-18.

Muñoz, Ana P. & Alvarez, Marta E. (2009) Washback of an oral assessment system in the EFL classroom. Language Testing 27(1) 1–1.

Özmen, Kemal Sinan. (2011). Washback Effects of The Inter-University Foreign Language Examination on Foreign Language Competences of Candidate Academics. Novitas-ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language), 2011, 5(2), 215-228.

Şenel, Esma & Tütüniş, Birsen. (2011). The Washback Effect Of Testing On Students’ Learning In Efl Writing Classes. Dil Dergisi • Sayı: 153 • Temmuz-Ağustos-Eylül 2011

Shohamy, E., S., Donitsa-Schimdt & I., Ferman. (1996). Test impact revisited: Washback effect over time. Language Testing, 13(3), 298-217.

Spolsky, B. 1990: Social aspects of individual assessment. In de Jong, J.H.A.L. and Stevenson, D.K., editors, Individualizing the assessment of language abilities, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 3-15.

von Elek, T. 1985: A test of Swedish as a second language: an experiment in self-assessment. In Lee, Y.P., Fok, C.Y.Y., Lord, R. and Low, G., editors, New dimensions in language testing, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 47-58


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